At admission many details concerning the prisoner shall be immediately recorded for example, the identity of the prisoner, the reason for commitment, etc. What kinds of data are recorded? Among the information collected are any visible injuries and complaints about prior ill-treatment also recorded?
History[ edit ] Ancient and medieval[ edit ] The use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written languagewhich enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society.
The best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabiwritten in Babylon around BC. This notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can also be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manama Dharma Astrathe Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, and the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Platobegan to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of simply using it as retribution.
Imprisonment as a penalty was used initially for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Eventually, since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead.
A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, and quarries.
One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prisonestablished around B.
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The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions,  contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was also a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slaveryoften in ergastula a primitive form of prison where unruly slaves were chained to workbenches and performed hard labor.
The possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, however, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils ; and the ability to have someone imprisoned or killed served as a signifier of who in society possessed power or authority over others.
Castellania Valletta From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Particularly under the Bloody Codewith few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving increasingly unpopular with the public; many jurors were refusing to convict defendants of petty crimes when they knew the defendants would be sentenced to death.
Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence. They developed systems of mass incarcerationoften with hard labor, as a solution. The first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalismand suggested that prisons should simply be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, hanging, etc.
This theory, referred to as deterrenceclaims that the primary purpose of prisons is to be so harsh and terrifying that they deter people from committing crimes out of fear of going to prison.
The second theory, which saw prisons as a form of rehabilitation or moral reform, was based on religious ideas that equated crime with sin, and saw prisons as a place to instruct prisoners in Christian morality, obedience and proper behavior. Punishment usually consisted of physical forms of punishment, including capital punishment, mutilationflagellation whippingbrandingand non-physical punishments, such as public shaming rituals like the stocks.
However, an important innovation at the time was the Bridewell House of Corrections, located at Bridewell Palace in London, which resulted in the building of other houses of correction. These houses held mostly petty offenders, vagrants, and the disorderly local poor.
In these facilities, inmates were given jobs, and through prison labor they were taught how to work for a living. By the end of the 17th century, houses of correction were absorbed into local prison facilities under the control of the local justice of the peace.
England used penal transportation of convicted criminals and others generally young and poor for a term of indentured servitude within the general population of British America between the s and The Transportation Act made this option available for lesser crimes, or offered it by discretion as a longer-term alternative to the death penalty, which could theoretically be imposed for the growing number of offenses.
The substantial expansion of transportation was the first major innovation in eighteenth-century British penal practice. While sentencing to transportation continued, the act instituted a punishment policy of hard labour instead. The suspension of transport also prompted the use of prisons for punishment and the initial start of a prison building program.
Gaols at the time were run as business ventures, and contained both felons and debtors; the latter were often housed with their wives and younger children. The gaolers made their money by charging the inmates for food, drink, and other services, and the system was generally corruptible.
It was the first facility to make any medical services available to prisoners. With the widely used alternative of penal transportation halted in the s, the immediate need for additional penal accommodations emerged.
Given the undeveloped institutional facilities, old sailing vesselstermed hulkswere the most readily available and expandable choice to be used as places of temporary confinement. The turn of the 19th century would see the first movement toward Prison reformand by the s, the first state prisons and correctional facilities were built, thereby inaugurating the modern prison facilities available today.
France also sent criminals to overseas penal colonies, including Louisianain the early 18th century. Katorga prisons were harsh work camps established in the 17th century in Russiain remote underpopulated areas of Siberia and the Russian Far Eastthat had few towns or food sources.Jun 05, · The standards that the Justice Department released last month, in accordance with the Prison Rape Elimination Act of , prevent juveniles from being housed with adult inmates or having.
Nov 05, · Juvenile means a child or any person below the age of majority. In most of the countries the age of puberty/ majority/ maturity is 18 years.
Juvenile prison is a kind of Jail/ Prison for children. Chism, now 16, was 14 when he committed the crime, but was tried as an adult due to a Massachusetts state law requiring juveniles 14 and older accused of murder to be tried as adults.
S v Juvenile (2) ZLR 61 (SC); (4) SA (ZS): Constitutionality of sentences of corporal punishment imposed upon juveniles This appeal dealt with the constitutionality of sentences of corporal punishment imposed upon juveniles in terms of s of the Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act.
Last week, the Florida Supreme Court ruled in Falcon v. State that juveniles not convicted of murder may not be sentenced to life in prison, and that even those convicted of murder may not be sentenced to life without parole, citing a U.S.
Supreme Court precedent that children are inherently less. The range of prison sentences a court can give - including suspended, fixed-term, indeterminate and life sentences.